Different Types of Biryani in India
Biryani is one of the most popular dishes in India as well as in the world. It is a complete meal made with rice and meat and a variety of spices and herbs. There are different variations of biryani based on the meat used. You can use fish, lamb, chicken, prawns or eggs in the biryani. There are vegetarian biryanis for vegetarians too.
To make biryani you have to cook the special basmati rice and the meat separately and then layer it together in a pot. By sealing the pot with dough, the layered meat and rice are cooked together with different condiments. The resultant dish that comes with an aroma of all the spices and condiments is just mouthwatering!
How many types of biryani are there?
You may not believe it, but there are around 26 different types of biryani in India itself. You can imagine now, how popular dish the biryani is. These varieties are introduced because, wherever biryani traveled, people from that region left impact of their cuisine on it. Biryani is derived from the Parsee word ‘Birian’ that means ‘frying before cooking’. So the basic method of making biryani is, fry the ingredients, i.e. rice and meat, and then cook them together.
Different varieties of Biryani in India
Biryani traveled with the emperors, who ruled different regions of India. It is said that, the Taimur Lang, brought the biryani to Northern India from Kazakhstan via Afghanistan. Mughals made the biryani popular in Lucknow. The city was known as Awadh and gave rise to Awadhi or Lucknowi Biryani. Then the biryani became popular in Delhi and Agra and the Nawab Wajid Ali Shah brought it to Kolkata, giving rise to Kolkata biryani. Later, Aurangzeb installed Nizam-ul-Mulk Asfa Jahu as ruler of Hyderabad and there introduced Hyderabadi Biryani. Also there is Tahiri Biryani which was invented by the Hindus, who do not eat meat. They added various vegetables in the biryani.
Various kinds of Indian Biryani Recipes
Emperor Aurangzeb introduced this type of biryani when he ruled in Hyderabad, South India. It is type of ‘katchi biryani’, in which, first meat is marinated in yogurt and spices. Rice is half cooked with steam and then both are layered in a pot and Dum cooked for further cooking. This biryani contains parboiled rice and meat so it is little bit dry in texture. The fragrant basmati rice is used to cook biryani. The dish is flavored with condiments like saffron, rose water, screwpine that give an awesome aroma to dish.
Awadhi or Lucknowi Biryani
In old times, when Mughals were ruling India, the Lucknow was known as Awadh, between 1800 and 1900. The Awadh biryani came into picture with these Mughals and get popular in north India. Lucknowi Biryani became popular because of its homogeneous blend of spices. Lucknowi biryani is not dry like Hyderabadi one, it is moist and juicy texture containing various flavors.
Kolkata biryani is little spicy than its cuisine. The Kolkata biryani is different because the potatoes are used in it. Skinned, whole potatoes are added into the biryani acquire all the subtle flavors from the stock. There is reason behind using potatoes in biryani. Biryani was Lucknowi dish, before it came to Kolkata and it was known as a royal dish of Nawabs. When Nawab Wajid Ali Shah moved to Kolkata, he introduced the biryani there, and made it popular throughout the region. The poor people in Kolkata could not afford to have meat in their meal every day, so they used potatoes instead, and the biryani became popular as Kolkata biryani.
It is believed that the Malabar Biryani was brought by Arab sailors across the Indian Ocean. The Kerala Muslims, were called as Mappilas, used to prepare the biryani which came to Kerala from Samarkhand with Mughals through Deccan region to the south. These Mappilas developed different varieties of biryani as, rice cooked with mutton, yogurt and coconut, mutton and fish biryani, mutton and egg biryani. Tomatoes, different spices and few raisins and cashews are added to this type of biryani. Also the biryani is cooked with different rice which is shorter variety of basmati rice. The meat and rice are cooked separately and layered in a narrow neck pot and steamed. This will make the rice to gain all the flavors of the meat. The chutney of raw mango, green chili and coconut is often served with the biryani.
International Biryani Recipes
Although biryani is Indian dish, it has become popular worldwide. Here are some International types of biryani mentioned
The Pakistani and Bangladeshi immigrants brought the biryani to UK. In several ways the biryani is made in UK, but in most of the places it is made in Sindhi style. This biryani is not spicy; the spices are toned down a lot from original ones. If you order the biryani, you may need to add spices to the dish.
Sri Lankan Biryani (Buryani)
The south Indian Muslims, trading in northern parts of Sri Lanka brought the biryani to Sri Lanka. The Sri Lankans call the biryani as Buhari Biryani or Buryani. The Buryani is more spicy that the Indian varieties of biryani. The spring hoppers may be used in Buryani in place of rice. The dish is served with side dishes as Malay Pickle, Acchar. Ground Mint Sambol and Cashew curry. The biryani made with string hoppers is often served with scrambled eggs and vegetables.
Malaysia and Singapore Biryani
Indian Muslims and Arabs introduced the biryani to Malaysia and Singapore. Biryani Bukhara is the variation of biryani made in Malaysia. It is originated from Buhari Biryani from Tmail Nadu, India. Another variety of biryani in Malaysia is, Nasi Beriani Gam, which is served in Malay weddings in Malaysia, Sumatra and Singapore. It is also called as Nasi Beriani. Just like the Indian ghee rice, the rice in Nasi Minyak is cooked separately from meat. The Nasi Minyak is served with a condiment, acar.
Mauritian Biryani (Briyani)
Mauritian Biryani or Briyani is another version of Hyderabadi Biryani, i.e. Katchi biryani or Dum biryani. It strictly requires sealed copper degg for cooking. The gravy of biryani consists of chicken or any meat marinated with ginger, garlic, yogurt, coriander, mint, cardamom, cinnamon, fenugreek and cloves. The difference between Dum Biryani and Mauritian biryani is, the roasted cumins and fried potatoes are added to the Mauritian biryani instead of kashimiri chili. The rice is flavored with Zaffraan, cardamoms, cinnamon and whole cumins. Cooking style of Mauritian biryani is meticulous with recipe of Hyderabadi biryani.